The weapons technology of Halkeginia is generally at about a 17th century level. Gunpowder exists, but it does not appear to be as heavily used as it was on Earth during the same time period, possibly due to the prevalence of Magic on the battlefield. In general, weapons used by commoners are deemed inferior to magic and considered to be little threat to nobles, however, as Agnès Chevalier de Milan proved on two different occasions, a skilled commoner with no special powers can kill a noble, particularly if said noble is careless or overconfident.
Swords are the primary melee weapon in Halkeginia, and the primary weapon of non-magical commoners on the battlefield, and as personal weapons. It is suggested, however, that some nobles may carry swords, given the weapon's dealer's attempts to sell Louise a decorative sword, claiming it to be a powerful magical artifact. It is also, however, suggested by the same arms dealer that nobles mostly buy swords to arm their servants and body guards. In general, most swords used by humans in Halkegnia have the appearance of a European-style longsword, with a double edge and a cross-shaped handguard. Some, however may be designed with a single-edged blade similar to a falchion, Derfflinger being an example. The Elves, on the other hand, use scimitars, often "throwing" them with their magical abilities. Some swords with magical properties have become legendary in Halkeginia, Derfflinger, a sentient blade used by Gandálfrs Sasha and Hiraga Saito being an example.
Many military noble's wands also double as swords, such as those of Wardes and Karin, Duchess de La Vallière. Unlike the broader-bladed swords used by commoner military forces, wand-swords typically are have narrower, rapier-like blades, suggesting they are more effective as thrusting than slashing weapons, though they may be reinforced with magic to make them more effective for slashing and parrying.
The only appearance of maces in the anime are in the form of weapon's combined with a magic staff. The most notable example being the staff-mace wield by the fire mage and mercenary Menvil. Henrietta also has a mace-like staff, though she is never seen using it as a melee weapon. While never shown, it is likely, given the presence of magic mace-staffs, that more conventional maces do exist.
Polearms are issued to commoner infantry and guards. The Albion Army has a large contingent of pikemen, armed with long pikes, who are deployed in dense spear-wall formations, similar to their real-world counterparts in Europe and Japan.
The Albion Army is shown in the anime to have a contingent of archers, possibly a reference to the real-world English, the basis for Albion, who were famous for their skilled longbowmen. Albion archers, along with cannon and magic attacks, severely wounded Saito in his attempt to hold off army of 70,000 (or seven million in the anime), with Saito only surviving because Derfflinger teleported him to safety.
Gunpowder is a relatively new technology in Halkeginia, though firearms have advanced to the point that the flintlock mechanism exists. Halkeginian flintlocks, like their real-world counterparts, can be used with less training than a bow, however, they are slow to reload and their accuracy decreases quickly with distance. The Tristain Musketeer Squad, led by Agnès Chevalier de Milan, are known to use flintlock pistols and muskets, as well as black powder grenades. Jean Colbert and Agnès also devised a non-lethal flashbang-like grenade made from gunpowder with a paper casing. The light novel also states that Albion has a musketeer unit.
In addition to personal firearms, the development of gunpowder in Halkeginia also led to the creation of cannon. A broadside of cannon comprises the primary armament of airships, being capable of firing both grapeshot and roundshot, though there is a gap in their main battery over the top of the ship. Land based cannon are also used. In the anime, the Albion Army are shown to have massive cannon, which, in spite of their appearance, which suggests they are heavy siege guns, are used against Saito in the battle against the army of 70,000. It is possible that they are moved with magic.