Early humans at Brimir's time (around 6,340 years before Louise summoned Saito) can all use elemental magic, provided they have wands and know the incantation. This might only apply to Brimir's tribe though. The mages can use all four elements freely and can cast magic from as young as age 5. Though combining them into line/triangle/square class spells were still impossible to begin with, and multiple mages need to cast the same spell to make it more powerful.
Contrary to current-day mages' indoctrination, the elemental magic did not come from Brimir's Void. Brimir's tribe had elemental magic before Brimir is born. Brimir stated himself his power is given from God, and he is to use it to defeat a then more-powerful and technologically-advanced race that threatened to drive humanity (and the elves) to extinction.
Magic has progressed from then by research and development, though the results are hardly ever used to increase the standard of living for 'commoners'; it is mostly for nobles and the military.
As Void Magic had lain dormant for almost 6,000 years, it had made no progress. Despite that, the familiar Mind of God is capable of combining Void magic with Firstborn Magic, and can perform magic feats beyond anything modern-day mages is capable of.
Not much is known about evolution of elven magic, except some techniques that are passed down from 6,000 years ago are known to most elves. One such technique is the forging of 'Sentient Blades', weapons that have their own will and possess special powers. Derflinger is one such 'Sentient Blade', forged by Sasha, and in Volume 19 when Saito and Tiffania are taken to the elven capital city a set of twin blades forged within the last few decades are used against Saito.